- Chapter 19 Notes - Immigration, Daily Life, and Urbanization

Originally written by Thomas Heissenberger.

Please edit this as you see fit. I can not guarantee 100% accuracy. I recommend to use this for study purposes only, not to complete homework. Remember, reading and writing (in other words; processing the information), is the best way to learn and understand the subject. Notes will help you understand the general picture but reading details within the book will also help you find small details that might be on the multiple choice questions. However, all posted notes will have greater detail than average homework notes, on average they take 2 - 3 hours to complete, depending on importance.

Migrants and ImmigrantsEdit

  • People migrated from countryside of America into major cities for jobs. Farms productivity falls.
    • City jobs such as mill work especially appealed to young farm women.
  • 10 million Northern European immigrants came, most German (3 mil.), followed by English (2 mil.), Scotish and Welsh and roughly 1.5 mil. Irish.
  • These immigrants were joined by other "new immigrants" who were Southern Europeans such as Italian, Greek, Slav, also Eastern Europe. All of these immigrants increased America's population by 18 million.
  • New Immigrants split up into areas of concentration, normally stuck together For example there were 2x Irish in New York.
  • Immigrants came to America for many reasons
    • Overpopulation
    • Famine
    • Religious persecution
    • Economic troubles or depression
  1. England = Economic troubles
  2. Germany = Overpopulation, religious problems.
  3. Japan = Appealed to the work and wages. (Too good to be true?)
  • Difficult Ocean travels for immigrants.
    • Immigrants brought new disease
      • Sexually transmitted diseases ---> refused
      • Severe infections, certain diseases, eye disease ---> refused
  • Immigrant names were Americanized for easy of pronunciation
  • Immigrants came to Ellis Island in NY bay. Immigrants were processed here.
    • Poor people stayed near the coasts
    • Well-off or skilled workers moved out Midwest.

Adjusting to an Urban SocietyEdit

  • People grouped together by nationality --> Ethnic neighborhoods
    • They further grouped by regions from their home countries.
  • Immigrants influenced politics such as Irish, the Irish immigrants heavily influenced politics.
  • German and English had the most skilled workers.
  • Most immigrants were planning on returning, these were mostly Italian and Chinese.

Slums and GhettosEdit

  • Ghettos formed, most often near manufacturing districts. Over-packed with residents.
    • These ghettos mostly formed with...
      • Italians = NY
      • Blacks = Philadelphia
      • Mexicans = Los Angeles
      • Chinese = San Fransisco
    • Diseases ran high, whopping cough.
    • Prone to pollution from factory coal smoke.
    • Blacks were force segregated into their own neighborhoods.

Fashionable Avenue and SuburbsEdit

  • Cities with ghettos also had luxurious neighborhoods. Some had plumbing, lighting, electrical, toilets.
    • Developed into stylish suburbs. ---> Well off or skilled workers moved around into these suburbs.
    • Other well of people bought large plots of land and created their own neighborhoods.

Manners and MoralsEdit

Victorian Americans - A luxurious classEdit

  • They believed work had social values such as hardworking ---> showed discipline.
  • Victorian class stressed good manners.
  • Social Reform (blacks mostly) had died out and lost the interest of many Americans.
  • Development of social manners and habits, this was used to reflect good outlook and elegance. (showing off that you are civilized)

Cult of DomesticityEdit

  • Victorian Americans believed in creating a family happy environment such as giving children care and an experience. Women would do housework / nurse children / care for family.
  • Rise in past-time clubs such as club activities or groups, hobbies

Department StoresEdit

  • Spike in merchandise availability and cheaper prices. Merchants encouraging middle class to buy wants and luxuries --> Rise of Department Stores
  • These stores advertised "rock-bottom prices" and had price fighting over customers.
    • Stores exercised big sales to sell out of season merchandise.
    • These stores tried to create a unique experience for customers. ---> Adventure shopping

The Transformation of Higher EducationEdit

  • Only 4% of people had a college education
  • Rise in colleges / universities - (150 new colleges / universities established)
    • Stanford University
    • University of Chicago
  • Sports played a big role in colleges
  • Some were founded solely for women
    • Spike in female enrollment in colleges from 34% to 71%
  • Colleges spark new medical science and promoted new jobs in the medical field and talents. Included training in biology, chemistry, physics and labwork.
  • Research Universities offer education in special, wide subjects.

Political Bosses and Machine PoliticsEdit

  • Ghettos created "boss" leaders who listened to urban needs. These people had enormous influence over labor unions leaders.
  • Political machines were organized groups that rose in some big cities.
    • Group manipulated by using taxes and reward (Corruption?)
    • "Ward bosses" acted in favor for neighborhoods and their needs.
  • William "Magear" Tweed - (From New York was a big boss)
    • Gave lots of money to poor ($50,000) and $2,250,000 to schools and hospitals.
    • His political machine however destroyed profits and jammed up more debts.
    • He had massive fraud and corruption rings --> was sent to jail. Later died.
  • Bosses fought the social elites, the poor vs. the rich.

Battling PovertyEdit

  • Some government officials saw bosses handling the poor wrong.
    • Wanted to show how severe the poverty was --> Poverty Relief Workers (This was also encouraged by a religious revival)
    • YMCA founded for constructive help and charity.

New Approaches to Social ReformEdit

  • These charity groups could not deal with the sheer size of problems.
  • Salvation Army! A church based group that was pretty effective in helping the poor. They came from the UK.
    • Provided food, shelter, soup kitchens
  • NY Charity Organization Society (NY-COS)
    • Founded by Josephine Shaw Lowell - a widow who's husband died in the civil war.
      • Helped women workers, but her group was criticized for taking advantage of the weak.

Moral-Purity CampaignEdit

  • People wanted measures for sins and corruption (punishment)
  • Anthony Comstock --> Advocate against gambling and the lottery.
  • Prostitution was a problem, saloons, whorehouses. People viewed this as the worst of the worst.

Social GospelEdit

This section requires more content, it's hard to put into a clear summary or context. Please contribute if you can. ~~Hydral1k 19:19, January 4, 2011 (UTC)

  • Ministers blame rich for the poverty and problems.
  • Social Gospel Movement sparks in the 1870s, prompted to have help for the poor.
    • Fails to help stop strikes.

The Settlement-House MovementEdit

  • Jane Addams, advocate mover and leader in immigrant care / ghetto charity.
    • Makes an immigrant center, has kindergarten, local plays, laundry, sports etc.
    • She was a big advocate for garbage management.
  • Florence Kelly who worked for Jane became a chief factory inspector.
  • Settlement Houses had mixed results during this period.

Streets, Saloons and BoxingEdit

  • Urban working class needed entertainment after work ---> wanted to enjoy, most young or women spent time in the streets, men were kept busy with saloons or other entertainment such as boxing or sports.

The Rise of Professional SportsEdit

  • Baseball was a great past time of America, people loved it. First came in 1845, rules solidified in 1860.
    • Teams organized into National League --> Professional Baseball
    • Rise of baseball parks
    • Blacks had also played but were banned from playing on professional teams. Pretty much ostracized from the sport.
  • Boxing and Horse Racing was another influential past time.
    • Heavy-weight champion John L. Sullivan --> An Irish Immigrant
      • He refused to fight blacks, avoids best black fighter conveniently.
      • Fights rival Jake Kilrain over boxing belt. Sullivan wins.

Vaudeville, Amusement Parks and Dance HallsEdit

  • Vaudeville were acts for amusement, this include comedy acts or skits, tails of life, stereotype jokes etc.
    • Appealed to different classes, mostly immigrant audiences
      • These shows help immigrants suppress and relieve the stresses of work.
  • Women found an interest in amusement parks, they could meet friends after work and have a good time.
  • Dancing was another big appeal with colorful dresses and exciting music.


  • Ragtime music, created by Black Americans, was pretty popular in expressing problems or moral lessons.
    • These songs came from African-American burdens and past troubles.
    • Fav. instrument = honky-tonk piano.
    • Music popularity rose in saloons and sensual things. Had mixed meanings of interpretation

The Genteel Tradition and Its CriticsEdit

  • A sort of informational movement about American taste in things like furniture, clothing, design.
  • Literature or news used to inform the importance of things like painting, music and allusions.
  • Mark Twain a fiction writer who was tired with the old boring style of writing.
  • Literature takes a turn in a new direction for new interests.
    • Rise of magazines, lowered prices, increased sales by more circulation.
      • Ladies Home Journal
      • Cosmopolitan
      • McClure's
    • This new direction of literature targets new story themes such as hardships and enduring, and getting through the difficulties of the time. A good example of these adventurous types of writing style was The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.

Modernism in Architecture and PaintingEdit

  • Architects pursue modernism, basing new designs for the future and not basing them on the past.
  • Frank Lloyd Wright designed prairie school houses which represent a theme of past endurance on the "prairie"
  • This modernism change in architecture created a rejection of previous "Victorian" style homes and themes.
  • Painting also took a change with paintings over daily life instead of always being over nature.
  • These painting and architecture changes had a big economic impact and created a complex social environment. This can be somewhat seen by theorizing the middle class against the rich elite, while the middle was encouraging new styles (the modernism) against the old standards of the rich (Victorian Style).

From Victorian Lady to New WomanEdit

  • Some women rejected the ideas of staying at home and "babysitting".
  • Frances Willard --> women who was busy promoting special women interests
    • Special hobbies rose, such as biking, basketball, urban pop styles, and so on.
    • Biking appealed especially to women as they enjoyed the exercise and freedom.
  • Women had also rose in independence
    • In 1880, one in every twenty-one marriages had divorced. By 1900, this rate had climbed to one in twelve.
  • Kate Chopin pushed this women independence very far with her literature, a novel over a woman's tale of suicide.

Public Education as an Arena of Class ConflictEdit

  • People made a big push especially among the middle class for education.
    • The rise and creation of public schools, wanted to push kids into school.
      • This was met with resistance from religious sides and opinions and also ethnic opinions.
      • By now, in the 1880s, most states had a public school system. These kids did attend school but most dropped out by the 4th year, only a few went on to high school.
        • Because of this problem, education advocates pushed to use force to keep children in school and other campaigns
        • Teachers used discipline on students, rulers, slapping, hitting. --> prompted some problems over public outlook over education efficiency.
        • Some parents had blamed the education system for influencing their childrens religious outview, this came by mostly as an outcry from the catholics ---> catholics form their own schools and criticize government schools.
          • Both sides tried to sort of "choke" one another. Tried to cut budgets on each other.