Test Three Overview Edit

Test Summary

  • Chapters 9-14 in Textbook; covering Sectionalism, Jacksonian Democracy, and the Reforms of the 1840s, Westward Expansion, and the Causes of the Civil War. During this period of time many territorial gains take place, especially territory along the West, both north and south. Many of these territories caused a rift among the antislave-North and proslave-South.
  • The average time peroid covered in this test is from the 1820s to roughly 1860s. I

Test Essay questions

1. In what ways did the presidencies of the 1840s and 1850s help bring about the Civil War? Talk about the actions and failures of those presidents. Is it fair to blame these men for helping to bring about the war?

  • Martin van Buren was a major blame for economic trouble and also the Specie Circular (1836) which was carried out by Van Buren made people quite angry.
  • The election of 1824 had caused much stir among the South and North. John Quincy Adams represented the North, Crawford the Deep South, Henry Clay the mid-West and Andrew Jackson the developing region known as the West. In the Election of 1824 the regional rift was so deep that the the election ended up in the House of Representatives, where Adams won, at least according to Jackson's supporters, by the political trick known as the "Corrupt bargain".
  • One act that outraged the South was a period during the 1850s, in which the Compromise of 1850 was used to fix this problem. This was a moment of very high tension between the South and North over slavery. Many felt a conflict over past acts such as the Missouri Compromise and the Kansas-Nebraska act. Most tension arose from presidents poorly addressing these issues.
  • Even though things were already coming to a head, when Lincoln was elected in 1860, South Carolina issued its "Declaration of the Causes of Secession." They believed that Lincoln was anti-slavery and in favor of Northern interests. This is another big reason, although Lincoln is not to blame.
  • If you still need help over this topic, I recommend to read here and here
  • Remember in Block 1 when Dan did that guy who was like Veto, Veto, Veto! This man was John Tyler and yeah, all he did was veto. An impeachment attempt was made on him. He is one of the star players of lame presidents. Make sure your essay does not miss information about him.

2. In what ways did America fulfill its “manifest destiny” in the middle of the 1800s? Why did Americans feel justified in expanding? Where did they expand to and how did they do it? What problems arose because of expansion?

  • America is extremely epansive during this 50 year period.
  • Manifest Destiny was part of the ideaology of Andrew Jackson and is reflected in his Jacksonian democracy.
  • US Annex's Texas (takes in). Was problematic but justified.
  • Settles Nothern territory with Maine and Britain. This was slightly problematic.
  • Territory in the North west is still disputed between Britain and the US, this was the result of Polk's "54-40 or Fight!". The US settled the territory and all land below the 49 degree latitude is US territory. No problems really arose.
  • The Gold Rush during 1849 as well as the US attempt to annex Cuba are other excellent examples of the Manifest Destiny taking place. Annexing Cuba was problematic though and avoided.
  • Gains more western territory, this was because of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Extremely problematic!

3. Discuss the revolution in transportation, technology and industry that took place in the early to middle 1800s. What affect did these changes have on common people like women, laborers, African Americans, and Native Americans?

  • Erie canal opened up trade from NY to Great lakes, there is a huge boom in Steam paddle boats which create some monopolies.
  • Massive advances in the North with industrilization, factories are driven by water, allow textile production.
  • Eli Whitney's cotton gin was a big player in the Souths economy and was probably one of the reasons why the South split, although it is only a small thing.
  • Women were being accepted into some jobs such as mills, some government administration, etc. This is more obscure and you should look into in more detail if you're unsure.
  • All of these changes are reflected in their own ways which you should be able to connect, I don't recommend to remember how they are but instead make the connections as you write your essay during the test.

4. The presidency of Andrew Jackson is seen as a turning point in American democracy. To what extent is this true? What did Jackson do to help expand American democracy? What did he do to hurt it? Is it fair to give him credit for expanding democracy?

5. What social problems had emerged in America by the early to mid 1800s? Who were some reformers who called for change and what solutions did they advocate? To what extent were they successful?

Test Questions

  • A key purpose of Henry Clay's system American system was: (C.) ???
  • President Andrew Jackson did not do this when exercising his power: (A.) He did not care to deter the rise of 3rd party canidate.
  • The Lecompton constitution would have provided: (D.) A pro-slavery government for Kansas.
  • How did the US gain the Oregon territory: (D.) By treaty and ceceeded by Britain to the US.
  • Daniel Websters address to senate was: (B.) Defense of the princepal of National Union.
  • Most of the 5 million immigrants that came to the US were from: (B.) Germany & Ireland.

Test Notes Edit

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Term ListEdit

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Terms Summary
"54-40 or Fight!"

Border issue on North-West coast with US and Britain.

"Burned-over district"

A religious phenomenon that promoted social reform around New York.

"Corrupt bargain"

Political trick used by John Adams to be voted president.

"King Cotton"

Phrase used to demonstrate importance of cotton to the South's economy

Alexis de Tocqueville

A French author who wrote about American social conditions, political ideas an religous observations.

American System

Economic plan to help expansion and economics.

Aroostook War

Border dispute over Maine's northern territory.

Battle of San Jacinto

Battle between Mexico and US over Texas.

Compromise of 1850


Dorothea Dix

She was an American activist who spoke for the indigent insane.

Dorr’s Rebellion

Armed protest in RI over voting rights.

Eli Whitney

Creator of cotton gin

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

Was a women’s right supporter who lead the early women’s movement.

Erie Canal

Canal from NY to Great Lakes used for trade.

Force Bill

A bill that extended executive power for enforcing tariffs.


Nickname for prospectors during the Goldrush.

Francis Cabot Lowell

American businessman, founder of mills at Lowell, MA

Frederick Douglass

Was a influential Black abolitionist, social reformer and statesman.

Gadsden Purchase

A small purchase made from Mexico to make a railroad to CA

Henry Clay

American Whig statesman: "The Great Compromiser"

Horace Mann

Was an American education reformer and activist.

Jacksonian Democracy

A term used to describe political philosphy and series of ideas Andrew Jackson used.

John Jacob Astor

Richest man of the 1800s

Kansas-Nebraska Act

A 1854 act to address slavery being allowed in Kansas and Nebraska.

Know-Nothing Party

United States Political Party during the 1840s and early 1850s.

Lincoln-Douglas Debates

7 debates in 1858, Abraham Lincoln vs. Stephen Douglas for Senate seat in Illinois.

Martin van Buren

8th U.S. President, took office after Andrew Jackson.


A term for a state calling a Fed. law invalid on their state.

Oneida Community

Extremist religious group that was in NY and sprung from the Second Great Awakening.

Ostend Manifesto

An American 'permission pass' plan to gain Cuba.

Peggy Eaton Affair

Scandal in Georgia that caused economy problems for Jackson

Samuel Slater

Founding Father of US industry

Santa Anna

Was a Mexican general and later Mexican president.

Secession Crisis (1832)

Nullification Crisis

Seneca Falls (1848)

Womens right convention in in SF, NY

Specie Circular (1836)

Order that changed payment method for land.

Spoils system

A practice where a political party or candidate, after winning an election, gives government jobs to its voters as a reward for them voting.

Spot Resolutions

Lincoln questions Polk about location of deaths.

Tariff of Abominations

A nickname by Southerns for the 1828 Tariff that was made to help protect US Industry.

Trail of Tears

Indian relocation into the West (Oklahoma today)

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

A peace treaty and agreement between the US and Mexico after the Mexican-American War.

Uncle Tom’s Cabin

Anti-slavery novel by Harriet Beecher Stowe.

William Lloyd Garrison

Very popular abolitionist

Wilmot Proviso

Attempted bill to ban slavery in gained US territory from Mexico.

Worcester v. Georgia

A US supreme case about Georgia and Indian lands.

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