Test Overview Edit

Test Summary

  • Chapters 15-20 in Textbook; covering the Civil War, Reconstruction, the Gilded Age, Industrialism and its effects.

Test Essay questions

What essay questions will appear on the test, and how to plan them (layout)

Test Questions

These will be questions that will likely appear on the test. Some have answers while others require good planning to answer them. Mr. Bowman gave these questions during the study night so do not worry about these being illegitimate.

  • Laissez-faire economic policies of the late 19th century encouraged...
    • Laissez-faire is where the government should not enforce taxes, tariffs or competition organization. The answer is probably one that deals with corporate buyouts or merging businesses together.
  • The main purpose of the Black Codes was to...
    • Obviously to limit rights of blacks in the South
  • "Competition is a law of nature... and can no more be done away with than gravitation...If we do not like the survival of the fittest, we have only one possible alternative, survival of the unfittest. The former is the law of civilization, the latter is the law of uncivilization." - The quote above is an example of which of the following schools of thought...
    • This is the philosphy of social darwinism. Only the best businesses or economically secure people survive.
  • Immigrants to the United States in the last quarter of the 19th century came primarily from...
  • Which of the following achievements of the "carpetbag" governments survived the "Redeemer" administrations...
    • A. Participation by both blacks and whites in local government
    • B. Establishment of a public school system
    • C. Election of African American majorities to state legislatures
    • D. Establishment of a vigorous Republican party in the South
    • E. Opening of public facilities to African Americans
    • The answer is likely B. The "Redeemer" administration was the process of the South regaining control of their states after Reconstruction. They made sure none of these achievments happened except for public school systems, which did.
  • During the Gilded Age, which group generally voted Republican...
  • After the Civil War, the railroad industry boomed because of...
  • The Emancipation Proclamation had the immediate impact of...
  • Nativists were primarily interested in...
  • Which of the following best describes the situation for freedmen in the decade following the Civil War...
    • A. Each was guaranteed a job by the Freedmen's Bureau.
    • B. All were immediately granted political equality by the Emancipation Proclamation
    • C. The majority entered sharecropping arrangements with former masters or nearby planters.
    • D. They were required to pass a literacy test before being granted citizenship to the U.S.
    • E. They supported the passage of the Black Codes to ensure the political and economic rights.
    • The answer is likely C, not all were given jobs by the bureu. None were granted political equality. They did not have pass a literacy test for citizenship, that was actually for voting (Black Codes). None supported the Black Codes, those went against blacks.
  • Which of the following statements about African Americans soldiers during the Civil War is correct...
    • A. They were primarily engaged in military campaigns west of the Mississippi
    • B. They were limited to non-combat duty
    • C. They were barred from receiving awards for valor in combat
    • D. For most of the war, they were paid less than White soldiers of equal rank
    • E. For most of the war, they were led by African American officers
    • The answer is likely D. They were paid 10 dollars while white soldiers were paid 16. Refer to Chapter 15 Notes (Civil War) for more information.
  • The Pullman Strike had each of the following effects EXCEPT...
  • As a result of the Haymarket Square Riot...
  • Andrew Johnson was nominated as Lincoln's running mate in 1864 to...
  • Union capture of Vicksburg and Port Hudson was strategically important because...
    • The answer is probably something that deals with the control of the Mississippi river. Most likely the Mississippi river because the Union actively pushed there throughout the war.
  • All of the following statements concerning the Wade-Davis Bill are true EXCEPT...
    • Note: The Wade Davis bill was the Radical Republican reconstruction plan, Lincoln pocket vetoed this bill. See Chapter 16 Notes (Reconstruction) for more information.
  • Which of the following was NOT a result of the Compromise of 1877...
  • Andrew Johnson was nominated as Lincoln's running mate in 1864 too...
    • Win the votes of pro-war Northern democrats.

Class NotesEdit

Test Notes Edit

Term ListEdit

Test Four Shortened Term List (printer-friendly)

Test Four Detailed Term List (printer-friendly)

Terms Summary
14th Amendment

An act pushed by the Radical Republican Congress defining citizenship.

1863 Draft Riots

Riots that took place in New York after Congress passed a draft law.

Appomattox Courthouse

Robert E. Lee surrenders to Ulysses S. Grant here, ending the Civil War.

Battle of Vicksburg

A Civil War battle in Mississippi that resulted in a decisive Union victory.

Bessemer Process

An industrial technique used to mass-produce steel.

Black Codes

Laws and unofficial social codes put in place in the United States to limit basic rights of blacks.

Boss Tweed

A corrupt American politician who exemplified the idea of the "political machine"

Chinese Exclusion Act, 1882

A U.S. law suspending Chinese immigration into America.

Compromise of 1877

A election deal that occurred in the 1876 presidential election, where Rutherford B. Hayes is elected.

Comstock Lode

The first major silver discovery, found in Western Nevada.

Credit Mobilier Scandal

A scandal between the Union Pacific Railroad and Crédit Mobilier of America.

Depression of 1893

A serious economic depression during the Gilded age.

Emancipation Proclamation

An executive order by Lincoln that "freed" all of the slaves in the evil states.

Eugene V. Debs

The founder and leader of the IWW.

Freedmen’s Bureau

A federal government agency that aided former slaves after the Civil War.


Union victory in Pennsylvania. Unbelievably bloody, and may have turned the tide of the war.

Gospel of Wealth

An essay written by Andrew Carnegie about giving back to society.

Gustavus Swift

The owner of a meat-packing empire in the Midwest.

Haymarket Square Riot

An infamous labor protest in Chicago in 1886 that resulted in chaos and violence. The protests lasted for 8 days

Henry Clay Frick

A "Robber Baron" of the Gilded Age, associated with Carnegie's US Steel.

Homestead Act, 1862

An act that gave eligible people land out West essentially for free.

Horizontal integration

A business practice that involves the consolidation of all companies offering a service or product to reduce competition.

John Wilkes Booth

The guy who killed Abraham Lincoln.


Bribe for political favors.

Lincoln's 2nd Inaugural Address

Abraham Lincoln balances forgiveness for the South and affirmation of the evils of slavery in this speech as the war is about to start.

Morrill Act, 1862

This act ma


A group of Republicans who fled their party and supported the Democrats during the 1884 election.


The Pinkertons were a company hired to break up strikes and unions by big business's.

Promontory Point

A point in Utah where the Union Pacific and Central Pacific railroad met.

Robert E. Lee

Commander of the Confederate army during the Civil War..

Samuel Gompers

Leader of the American Federation of Labor


A nickname given to Southern Whites who supported reconstruction after the Civil War


A substitution for currency, used by some big businesses during the 1800s

Sears and Roebuck

America's first major department store chain.


An agroeconomic strategy where land is given in return for a share of the crop produced.

Sherman’s March

William T. Sherman pillages his way through Georgia to destroy the South.

Social Darwinism

A social philosophy based on Darwin's ideas, paraphrased by "survival of the fittest."

Standard Oil

John D. Rockefeller's oil corporation that bought out other oil businesses.

Tenure of Office Act

Limited Andrew Johnson's power to remove cabinet members.

Thaddeus Stevens

One of the most powerful Republicans after the Civil War.

Thomas Edison

An American inventor, scientist, and businessman who developed many devices that greatly influenced life around the world

Thomas Nast

Highly influential German-American political cartoonist

Ulysses S. Grant

Commander of the Union army during the Civil War and 18th president.

Whiskey Ring

A scandal that involved government agents and whiskey distillers by diverting tax.

“New immigration”

The influx of immigration during the 1850s to 1900s in America.

“Robber Barons”

A term used to refer to a rich/powerful banker or businessman during the Gilded Age.

Study TipsEdit