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"1. Compare and contrast Lincoln’s, Johnson’s, and Congress’ plans of reconstruction. What were the objectives of each plan? Why did each fail to achieve its goals?" See Chapter 16 Notes for more information

  • Lincoln's "10% Percent Plan"
    • States could be readmitted if 10% of voters took oath
    • Excluded some southeners, blacks excluded.
    • The next step in the process would be for the states to formally elect a state government.
    • State legislature could write a new constitution, but it also had to abolish slavery forever.
    • For saw the issues in the future of racism and segregation. Lincoln met with African American leaders numerous times and tried to convince them to colonize in Central America as he knew racism would be an issue in America however this failed.
    • Wanted a speedy readmission of states back into the union in an organized fashion.
    • Signed the Freedmen's Bureau around 1865.
    • The Radical Republicans opposed Lincoln's plan, as they thought it too lenient towards the South.
    • How Effective was Lincoln's plan? Lincoln was trapped in a very difficult situation during his presidency and was trying to appease two sides, the Radical Republicans and the Democratic South. He was very delicate in judging issues and pushed slavery aside when ever possible and put the Union as first priority. Lincoln's plan should of actually worked very well until he was assassinated. This led to Radical Republican control.
  • Johnson's Reconstruction Plan
    • Pardons would be granted to those taking a loyalty oath
      • No pardons would be available to high Confederate officials and persons owning property valued in excess of $20,000
    • A state needed to abolish slavery before being readmitted
    • A state was required to repeal its secession ordinance before being readmitted.
    • The Radical Republicans realized Johnson's plan was far to lenient and he also did not give a damn for blacks. He was giving pardons to many ex confederate elites as well.
    • What was the goal and effectiveness of Johnson's plan? Not much, his goal was to put the poor southern farmers back into control of politics. Johnson was a mellow individual but did many of his actions in the wrong way at the wrong time. He vetoed many of congress's bills which created a storm among the Radical Republicans.
  • Radical Republican Reconstruction
    • Shortly after Johnson became president, Republican's in Congress were angered by Johnson's vetoing of bills and slacking readmission process. They wanted to put a thumb down on the South. After sweeping the elections of 1866, the Radical Republicans gained almost complete control over policymaking in Congress. This gave them the brute force they needed to push Johnson out of the way.
    • Congress declared that southern states needed to redraft their constitutions.
    • All states must ratify the Fourteenth Amendment
    • Provide suffrage to blacks in order to seek readmission into the Union. To further safeguard voting rights for former slaves, Republicans passed the Second Reconstruction Act, placing Union troops in charge of voter registration. Congress overrode two presidential vetoes from Johnson to pass the bills.
    • They also divided the South into five military districts, each governed by a Union general. Congress declared martial law in the territories, dispatching troops to keep the peace and protect former slaves.
    • What was the goal and effectiveness of the Radical Reconstruction? Obviously their goal was to make the south pay. They wanted to trouble them as much as possible. They did impose their radical reconstruction however they did not succeed in maintaining their domination of the Southern states. This arose in the Compromise of 1877 when Rutherford B. Hayes's election came to a draw. The republicans decided to give up their control of the South which put the South into the "Redeemer" administrations. This resulted in much crime and fraud in the South.