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  • "54-40 or Fight!" - Definition Lots of people wanted Oregon's boundary to be at 54 degrees, 40 minutes (about the southern boundary of today's Alaska) and were willing to fight Britain for it. - Importance Not actually a campaign slogan in 1844, but often misinterpreted as one. James Polk got elected that year on this ideal, but eventually ended up settling on the 49th parallel-- without fighting. This border is still used today. - Additional Information
  • "Burned-over district"

    - Definition

    What was it?

    A religious phenomenon in New York which was part of the Second Great Awakening, consisting of religious revivals.

    What did it do?

    Religion gained influence, and further brought attention to issues such as women's rights and slavery.

    - Importance This region was famous for social radicalism, because of this, it shaped many peoples' belief such as Elizabeth Cady Stanton who was a resident of Seneca Falls, New York. This is where a prominent women's rights convention took place. Ultimately because religion was a big influence, it promoted to the reform movements of the period, such as abolition, women's rights, and utopian social experiments.

    - Additional Information This religious revival is related to the Oneida community.

  • "Corrupt bargain"

    - Definition In the 1824 U.S. presidential election, no candidate received the required majority of electoral votes, leaving the House of Reps to decide. John Quincy Adams cleverly decides to appoint Henry Clay as Secretary of State, in which Clay persuaded the House to vote for Adams in return. Basically one man wins, one helped him win, and one storms out all angry. The loser was Andrew Jackson who raged like big time. Important because some people (obviously Jackson and supporters) saw this as corrupt and cheap: Henry Clay supported Adams in the House vote in return for the office of SecState. [This is extremely confusing, in super simple terms, one scratches the others back, the other scratches his back, but they both kick Andrew Jackson. If you still cannot remember, try to remember the time when Mr. Bowman compared the corrupt Bargain with George Bush’s vote, it created a tie and left Florida to "decide" the vote.]

    - Importance Casts a shadow over JQA's presidency. Jackson gets really mad, and stays mad. Must be mad lol.

    - Additional Information
  • "King Cotton"

    - Definition Phrase used to demonstrate importance of cotton to the South's economy. Cotton was their primary cash crop and slaves were used in farming the crop.

    - Importance Southern politicians believed that cotton's economic and political power would be able to control the US to avoid war or bring aid if American politics turned ugly.

    The South expected support during the Civil War from Britain, a major cotton importer, but Britain instead developed alternative sources of cotton within its empire. The South's dependence on cotton contributed to its economic weakness after the war.

    - Additional Information
  • Alexis de Tocqueville

    - Definition

    Who was he?

    He was a French political thinker / historian / author who explored the effects of the rising equality of social conditions on the individual and the state in western societies


    What did he do?

    Wrote 2 popular books that explored and explained early political science and sociology.

    - Importance His books were influential and also he advocated for racial segregation such as the Indian removal act. - Additional Information None.

  • American System

    - Definition An economic plan based on ideas of Alexander Hamilton, and headed by Henry Clay, consisting of a high tariff to support internal improvements such as road-building (expansion west), and a national bank to encourage productive enterprise and form a currency. This program was intended to allow the United States to grow and prosper, by providing a defense against cheap foreign products, mainly at the time from the British Empire. Promoted by Whigs in 1830's.

    - Importance Important because this plan was to help the US expand especially westward, as well as depend less on foreign goods and more on internal products which thus pissed the South off and made the West/North happy.

    - Additional Information
  • Aroostook War

    - Definition A confrontation in 1838-39 between the United States and Great Britain over the international boundary between British North America (Canada) and Maine. It is called a war because not only were tensions high, but troops were raised and armed on both sides and marched to the disputed border. Roughly around 12,000 soldiers were mobilized BUT no fighting took place. President Martin Van Buren sent General Winfield Scott to work out a compromise. A neutral area was created and the controversy gradually died down.

    - Importance It resulted in an ‘official’ border between Maine and Canada and established the Webster-Ash Treaty.

    - Additional Information
  • Battle of San Jacinto

    - Definition April 21, 1836

    Sam Houston(US) whoops Santa Anna's bum.

    A decisive battle of the Texas revolution that resulted in a Texan victory and a Mexican surrender and retreat south to the Rio Grande. The battle results were shocking, with nearly half of Santa Anna’s men being killed in under 15 minutes (630 soldiers). The Texans only lost 9 soldiers. The Texans were also undermanned with only 910 soldiers compared to Mexico’s 1,360.

    - Importance End of Texas Revolution. Led to Treaties of Velasco (Not the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo which happened in 1848, 12 years later- which is a different war.) Lets Texas have independence and to be annexed into the US.

    - Additional Information
  • Compromise of 1850

    - Definition

    What was it?

    Was a package of 5 bills which were passed to defuse a confrontation between pro-slave states of the South and free states of the North which began to fight over the new territory gained from the Mexican-American War.

    What did it do?

    Was a package of 5 bills which were passed to defuse a confrontation between pro-slave states of the South and free states of the North which began to fight over the new territory gained from the Mexican-American War.

     

    This was drafted by Henry Clay and was greeted with relief, it stated that Texas would relinquish the land dispute and they would be given $10 million dollars in return as compensation to pay off their debt to Mexico. It would admit California as a free state, however, the territories to the east of California were open to slavery by popular sovereignty which means the inhabitants of these places would decide upon whether to allow slavery or not. (Notice how they shove the issue of slavery under the table once again with this issue.)

     

    - Importance

    - Additional Information
  • Dorothea Dix

    - Definition

    Who is she?

    Was an American activist who spoke for the indigent insane, in which she grimly described the living conditions as well as the treatment of the insane by recording it in a book as she went to mental institutions around the US.

    What did she do?

    She ambitiously lobbied state legislatures and the US congress to address the issue.

    - Importance Important because she succeeded by creating the first generation of American mental asylums but hit a stone wall in 1854 when Franklin Pierce vetoed it arguing the federal government should not commit itself to social welfare and instead was the responsibility of the states.

    - Additional Information A mental hospital was named after her, surprisingly there was a controversy with how that hospital dealt with the insane.

  • Dorr’s Rebellion

    - Definition Was a short-lived armed protest in Rhode Island led by Thomas Wilson Dorr, who was demanding for changes to the state's electoral system. State militia mobilized but no fighting resulted.

    - Importance Voting was favoring farmers when the Industrial Revolution swept the North; large numbers of people who lived in the city could no longer vote, thus angering them (they did not own land) in RI. It was so bad that by 1829, 60% of the state's free white men were not allowed to vote. The Rebellion did result in the creation of a new state constitution which lessened the requirements to vote and even allowed any race to vote, all for a simple poll tax of $1.

    - Additional Information
  • Eli Whitney

    - Definition An American inventor who we almost all know for inventing the cotton gin. This machine was one of the key inventions of the Industrial Revolution and helped shape the South’s new dependence on Cotton as a cash crop.

    - Importance Important because his invention obviously shaped the economy of the South and further provoked slavery expansion since blacks were used for cotton-picking.

    - Additional Information
  • Elizabeth Cady Stanton

    - Definition

    Who is she?

    She was an American social activist / abolitionist / women’s right supporter who lead the early women’s movement.

    What did she do?

    After sometime, she narrowed her objectives to just women’s rights, where she publicly questioned why females could not vote and many other issues such as parental custody, property rights, employment and divorce laws and birth control.

    - Importance Her commitment to female suffrage caused a rift in the women’s right movement she created, because ironically she opposed giving legal protection and voting rights to African American men because black or white women were denied those rights. Another popular women's right activist.

    - Additional Information

    The 2 rights groups later joined back together 20 years later.
  • Erie Canal

    - Definition An artificial waterway constructed from 1817 - 1825 that opened huge transport abilities and led to a waterway that goes to the Great Lakes.

    - Importance Important because it cut down nearly 95%~ of transportation costs and greatly improved the economy. Provided manufactured goods to settle the Old Northwest, and crops could be shipped back East. Would eventually be succeeded by the railroad, but not for some time.

    - Additional Information
  • Force Bill

    - Definition

    What was it?

    The bill was initially enacted in 1833 to give express power to President Andrew Jackson to use whatever force necessary to enforce Federal tariffs. It was intended to suppress South Carolina's refusal to collect tariffs during the Nullification Crisis.

    What did it do?

    Gave greater executive power.

    - Importance The importance of the Force Bill is that it is the first piece of legislation to publicly deny the right of secession to individual states. It was also important because it gave Jackson some serious political leverage such as being able to close ports or use armed force.

    - Additional Information None available.

  • Forty-niners

    - Definition Prospectors that went to California during the Gold Rush of 1849. They arrived relatively early, in 1849, hence the 49 name. Population of CA increased by an estimated 86,000.

    - Importance Reinforced the idea of Manifest Destiny where America was destined to span from the Atlantic to the Pacific.

    - Additional Information
  • Francis Cabot Lowell

    - Definition

    Who was he?

    An American businessman who helped bring the Industrial Revolution to the US (cf. Samuel Slater). Founded mills in Waltham and Lowell, MA.

    What did he do?

    He proved instrumental in the rise of mills and the mill system, especially in his personal city, Lowell. If you have ever visited there, there’s a TON of mills that utilize the river for power.

    - Importance He was a major player in the Industrial Revolution, and brought large factory-style mills to prominence (versus "cottage" mills)

    - Additional Information Mill girls: these females (many children) worked in very harsh conditions at the mills which were often dangerous, underpaid, and crude. This eventually became a problem that arose later especially during the women’s rights and labor movements.

  • Frederick Douglass

    - Definition

    Who was he?

    Frederick Douglass was a Black abolitionist, social reformer and statesman. He was very intelligent and a skilled writer / speaker who proved to be very influential.

    What did it do?

    He had escaped his slave owner and became a leader of the abolitionist movement

    - Importance The star player for the abolitionists during the antebellum and civil war era. He was also a standing example of proving the south wrong because they compared blacks as stupid and barbaric while Douglas was smarter than most white men.

    - Additional Information None available.

  • Gadsden Purchase

    - Definition

    What was it?

    A very small territorial purchase made in 1853 in what is now southern New Mexico and Arizona. The US paid $10 million for a tiny sliver of land, 2/3rds of what they paid after the Mexican-American War for land that was literally 50x the size.

    What did it do?

    The US wanted this land so that a railroad could be constructed to California, south of the Rockies.

    - Importance The US purchased this land for one reason: railroad. The money paid for it shows how important railroads were to the country in the 1850's. This was the last major territorial acquisition made by antebellum America.

    - Additional Information
  • Henry Clay

    - Definition

    Who was he?

    A U.S. statesmen who served as a rep of Kentucky and was in the House of Representatives and was Secretary of State.

    What did he do?

    Was a dominant figure, a leader in Congress from the War of 1812 to the Civil War. He had many different views and opinions which gained him the nickname "The Great Compromiser".

    - Importance He negotiated many politically divisive issues. Famous for the American System, the Compromise Tariff of 1833, and the Compromise of 1850

    - Additional Information
  • Horace Mann

    - Definition

    Who is he?

    He argued that the US should equally educate everyone and allow the opportunity by arguing that the nation’s growth will depend on it. He is referred to as the “Father of the Common School Movement”

    - Importance Important because he is likely why you are in school today, not only that but he also advocated to bring children of all ages together in a similar environment of interacting so it could create a common learning experience. This also grant the opportunity for women jobs, allowing females to take the job and experiance as a teacher.

    - Additional Information
  • Jacksonian Democracy

    - Definition

    What was it?

    Was a political philosophy that Andrew Jackson and his supporters believed in. It consisted of roughly 6 broad ideas.

    • Manifest Destiny
    • Extended Suffrage
    • Spoils system (government official rotation)
    • Removal of national banks.
    • Less government, more the people.

    What did it do?

    It promoted strength of the presidency and executive branch at the expense of Congress's power while also wanting to broaden the public’s participation in the government. It also encouraged expansion in the West.

    - Importance His political philosphy led the course of American ideas and change from 1820s to 1850s such as expansion, equal suffrage, and less government, more about the people.

    - Additional Information
  • John Jacob Astor

    - Definition Was a rich dude, he was the creator of first trust(which means: business monopolies by setting fixed prices) He made a fortune with this in fur trading, real estate and opium sale. He was the Bill Gates of the 1800s.

    - Importance He used a huge exploit with his trade by under-table price negotiation.

    - Additional Information Price Fixing:I will try to explain this to my best of ability. He did something called fixed pricing, which is where … let’s say you’re selling blue watermelons, and for some stupid reason everyone needs blue watermelons. What he would do is go to every store / merchant / business that sold blue watermelons to the public and says to them, “Hey guys, wanna make some mad bank? Let’s raise the price of blue watermelons to 5 times the price; we’ll sell them now 5 times the original price so we all profit from this. If none of you dummies change your prices to stay competitive, we can take advantage of the super high price!” Naturally, what’s to lose? People need the blue watermelons and now they are 5x as pricey for no freaking reason. It’s just like Bill Gates today, the creator of the Windows operating system ( the language your computer speaks). Most programs are written to work for ONLY on Windows, nothing else and thus is becomes the one and only so Bill Gates can now sell his operating system at any price he likes because he knows he has the advantage.

    He wasn't all bad, though. Major philanthropist, founded the NY Public Library, etc. You decide.

  • Kansas-Nebraska Act

    - Definition

    What was it?

    Was an act created in 1854, basically a band aid to address the slavery issue of allowing slavery in the new territories created which were Kansas and Nebraska. (we all know how well compromises like that turn out)

    What did it do?

    It repealed the Missouri Compromise of 1820 and allowed the settlers in the territories themselves to determine if they would have slavery within their boundaries

    - Importance Important because it was a somewhat keen move by Stephen Douglas who was Senator at the time. Douglas did not care about slavery so he took the weight off his chest and let the settlers decide for themselves, hoping it would ease relations between the North and the South. This backfired and also led to the “Bleeding Kansas” and was a major cause of the civil war.

    - Additional Information The Kansas-Nebraska Act happened because of the 1850 Compromise, new territory was being submitted to the US and addressing wether slavery was to be allowed or not became a major issue.

  • Know-Nothing Party

    - Definition An American political group around the 1840s and 1850s that came after the Whig party. They rose massively during 1854, fueled by the fears that the country was being overwhelmed by German and Irish immigrants. Their goal was to slow down/block immigration and naturalization (gaining citizenship) in the US but they had little success and died out pretty fast during the election of 1856, due to opinions over slavery. Hated Irish, Catholics, Irish Catholics, Germans, and pretty much everyone else.

    - Importance Opposition to Democratic Party, influenced early Republican Party. They shifted American politics during the 1850s and had a huge effect on the voting results especially up North.

    - Additional Information
  • Lincoln-Douglas Debates

    - Definition A series of debates around 1858 between Congressman Stephen Douglas and Abraham Lincoln. There were a total of 7 debates between August and October. Douglas was unbiased by slavery and had no interest really in it (basically like a free-soiler) but he used the debate to try to "expose" Lincoln as an abolitionist. Lincoln responded by saying he was not one and even went as far as to say congress did not have the authority to remove or prohibit slavery. He countered further by trying to pin Douglas to the wall with issues such as slavery in new territories. Neither of them had a decisive victory in the debates.

    - Importance A good preview of the issues that dominate Lincoln's presidential career. Made Lincoln famous in the north and infamous in the South.

    - Additional Information
  • Martin van Buren

    - Definition

    Who was he?

    8th U.S. President that took after Andrew Jackson in 1837 and was in office till 1841. He had served as Andrew Jacksons vice president earlier.

    What did he do?

    He was a key figure who helped Jackson build his organizational structure for Jacksonian Democracy, however when he was president, his administration was seen as the cause of the Panic of 1837. He also had to carry out Andrew Jackson's Coinage Act.

    - Importance He was indecisive on issues related to slavery and made no contribution toward resolving that problem. He was also blamed for Panic of 1837 (economic crisis).

    - Additional Information " Van Buren can be considered an average president. While his time in office was not marked by many "major" events, the Panic of 1837 ultimately led to the creation of an Independent Treasury. His stance helped avoid open conflict with Canada. Further, his decision to maintain sectional balance delayed admitting Texas to the Union until 1845.Van Buren can be considered an average president. While his time in office was not marked by many "major" events, the Panic of 1837 ultimately led to the creation of an Independent Treasury. His stance helped avoid open conflict with Canada. Further, his decision to maintain sectional balance delayed admitting Texas to the Union until 1845. " About.com

    He was president during the Aroostook War

    Andrew Jackson sided with Martin van Buren in the Peggy Eaton Affair.

  • Nullification

    - Definition Theory that a state has the right to invalidate any federal law which that state deemed unconstitutional. Caused a storm with South Carolina over nullification.

    - Importance Crisis ensued over it involving South Carolina's Ordinance of Nullification, claiming the federal tariff void on their state.

    - Additional Information Anything else--supplemental info, memory pegs, etc.

  • Oneida Community

    - Definition An attempted utopian community. Based in Oneida, New York. Was established in 1848 by John Humphrey Noyes. Did not believe in traditional marriage, throught it created favoritism. All men were 'married' to all women. Believed that they were living in the period after Christ had already come back, so there was no sin. Wanted to create the "ideal society", so they practiced communism. Each person had his own job that he had to complete in order to make the community function.

    - Importance Another utopian community that sprung up- showed new ideals that were valued. It failed eventually.

    - Additional Information They are now famous for silverware.

  • Ostend Manifesto

    - Definition 1854, during Franklin Pierce's term. "Annex Cuba, or fight!"

    A document that “arranged the reasons” for the US to purchase Cuba from Spain, and implied if Spain refused then the US would declare war or take Cuba by force.

    - Importance Did not interest everybody, screwed up Pierce's presidency further.

    During Franklin Pierce’s administration, Southern expansionists wanted Cuba as a slave state but the Kansas-Nebraska act left the administration unsure how to judge the situation. The document was immediately denounced by the Northern states as well as Europe and would later result in Bleeding Kansas.

    - Additional Information
  • Peggy Eaton Affair

    - Definition

    What was it?

    A scandal among the Cabinet and their wives, and the High Society-type folks in Washington. It began with Margaret O'Neill Eaton who originally married to a man who passed away and was remarried to Senator John Henry Eaton.

    What did it do?

    The affair began to spread among the women’s social circle. They ostracized Mrs. Eaton because of a rumor they heard that her old husband committed suicide.

    - Importance Andrew Jackson was a close friend of Mr. Eaton and he immediately didn’t like this; in fact it nearly made him "reorganize" his cabinet. Essentially it caused a huge rift in the administration; Andrew Jackson now sided with Martin Van Buren instead of John C. Calhoun (Whose wife was talking the smack) This new split of power defined the outcome of the Jackson administration later.

    - Additional Information
  • Samuel Slater

    - Definition An American industrialist known as 'the father of US industry' because he brought British textile technology to the US. He violated the British emigration law to come to America (one stating British machinists can't leave Britain). By the end of his life he had 13 of his own mills.

    - Importance Important because he was, well, the Father of American Industry. He helped America create mills and factories.

    - Additional Information
  • Santa Anna

    - Definition Was a Mexican general and later Mexican president. Led Mexico's troops during Texas Revolution. He fought for independence from Spain. When Texas declared itself independent in 1836, Santa Anna marched with his men into Texas to take it back under control. He won the Battle of the Alamo where he later controversially executed 350 Texan prisoners. Important because he was later beat at the Battle of San Jacinto which resulted in a treaty and Mexico withdrawing from Texas. He was also Mexico’s president for a cumulative 22 years.

    - Importance Won at the Battle of the Alamo, was crushed at San Jacinto. Captured as prisoner and forced to sign Treaties of Velasco, giving Texas independence and to be annexed into the US.


    - Additional Information
  • Secession Crisis (1832)

    - Definition The South was getting fed up with Jacksons tarrifs which greatly hurt their economy. They threated to nullify  the Tariff of Abominations  more commonly known as the Tariff of 1828. President Andrew Jackson threatened use of the military to enforce federal acts of Congress. Luckily, violence was avoided thanks to Clay's Compromise where the tariff's effects would be lessened over time until 1842.



    - Importance One of the causes leading up to the civil war. Emphasized the whole North vs the South ordeal. - Additional Information Anything else--supplemental info, memory pegs, etc.

  • Seneca Falls (1848)

    - Definition

    What was it?

    Was an early and influential women’s right convention that took place in Seneca Falls, New York. The meeting went over for 2 days in 6 sessions and discussed law, women in society, as well as other issues such as voting. They prepared two documents with their ideas but only 100 of the 300 attendees signed the document, most female.

    What did it do?

    It can be seen as another pro-women's right act, but it did not achieve much, how ever it is considered the birthplace of women's rights.

    - Importance It was seen as the single step in the continuing effort by women to gain for themselves a greater proportion of social, civil and moral rights and viewed by others as a revolutionary beginning to the struggle by women for complete equality with men. Essentially it is considered the birthplace / start of the major female reform movement. - Additional Information None.

  • Specie Circular (1836)

    - Definition

    What was it?

    The Specie Circular (Coinage Act) was an executive order issued by U.S. President Andrew Jackson in 1836 and carried out by President Martin Van Buren (because Jackson was no longer in office). It required payment for government land to be in gold and silver.

    What did it do?

    Made the south extremely mad at Van Buren even though it was Jackson’s idea. Jackson did not approve of the idea of bank notes and opposed such ideaology and instead insisted using old trade methods, this bill clearly shows it.

    - Importance It is the said cause of inflation (where money becomes less worthy) and many also blame it for the Panic of 1837. (economic crisis)

    - Additional Information It caused the democratic party to split because some supported paper money while others viewed it similar to Jackson.

  • Spoils system

    - Definition "To the victor goes the spoils"-- Jackson offers government jobs to party supporters

    What was it?

    A practice wherein a political party or candidate, after winning an election, gives government jobs to party supporters as an incentive to keep working for the party and a reward for their support.

    What did it do?

    This system stands opposed to the pre-Jackson one wherein government jobs were given to personal friends and kept for life. Though the spoils system seems corrupt to us today, it allowed Jackson to introduce a system of rotation for most government jobs, allowing limited terms in governmental positions. Jacksonians also believed that long service in the civil government jobs was corrupting, so civil servants should be rotated out of office at regular intervals. However, this did lead sometimes to the hiring of morons and sometimes corrupt officials in the place of better, competent or good ones.

    - Importance
    This was a major change in the way the Executive branch was organized and a cornerstone of Jacksonian Democracy.

    - Additional Information
  • Spot Resolutions

    - Definition 1847: Lincoln (in House of Reps.) asked James Polk to show him the spot on American soil where blood was spilt (starting the Mexican War). Lincoln was very persistent with this request of the location, eventually gaining the nickname Spotty Lincoln.

    - Importance Shows that politicians didn't necessarily like Polk's handling of the war--he pretty much started it on purpose

    - Additional Information
  • Tariff of Abominations

    - Definition

    What is it?

    The Tariff of Abominations was a nick name given to the The Tariff of 1828 by Southerners. It was a protective tariff passed by the US congress around 1828 and was designed to protect industry in the northern United States. It was labeled the Tariff of Abominations by its southern haters because of the effects it had on the antebellum Southern economy and would lead to the Nullification Crisis.

    What did it do?

    The Tariff taxed imported goods because those imported goods were cheaper than US goods, the South relied heavily on these goods. The Tariff help to protect the Northern economy but caused a great amount of troubles for the South because British trade traffic would decrease which made exporting the South's cotton more problematic.

    - Importance Important because the South viewed it as further hindering their economy and created more friction which helped fuel later events such as the Civil War.

    - Additional Information
  • Trail of Tears

    - Definition

    What was it?

    A forced relocation of Native Americans consisting of 5 nations of Indians from the Southeast who were forced westward. This was the result of the Indian Removal Act of 1830 which Andrew Jackson proposed and supported.

    - Importance It was infamously known as a very disturbing treatment of Indians because many died during the trip; an estimated 1/3 of the Indians died during the relocation due to exposure, disease and starvation. They finally relocated into the Indian Territory, modern-day Oklahoma.

    - Additional Information The five nations (Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole) were known as the "Five Civilized Tribes" by whites because of their apparent acceptance of many parts of Anglo-American culture. Look how far that got the poor guys.

  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

    - Definition

    What was it?

    Was a peace treaty settling territory and reimbursments after the Mexican-American War.

    What did it do?

    Was a peace treaty.

    - Importance It was another territorial gain and second near largest chunk of territorial addition to the US. It also established new borders and posed new problems for addressing, such as; if slavery should expand to the new states. Zachary Taylor, who was president at the time, opposed this idea since he was a free-soiler and believed slavery would not fit in a state such as California

    - Additional Information California became a free state while terri

  • Uncle Tom’s Cabin

    - Definition

    What was it?

    An anti-slavery novel by Harriet Beecher Stowe, published in 1852. The novel instantly became a best seller and over 300,000 copies were sold in the US..

    What did it do?

    The novel spread anti-slavery sentiment further across the North, and anti-abolitionist sentiment faster across the South.

    - Importance Considered by many historians to have laid the groundwork and motives of the North for the Civil War. It was a very emotional book and heavily changed opinions over slavery and helped develop the North’s further hate of slavery.

    - Additional Information
  • William Lloyd Garrison

    - Definition Abolitionist and women's suffrage advocate. Published radical newspaper "The Liberator." Once he even publicly burned a copy of the Constitution, condemning it as “pro-slavery”.

    - Importance Controversial and radical. Influenced a generation of reformers, including Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott.

    - Additional Information
  • Wilmot Proviso

    - Definition Introduced by David Wilmot, it stated that slavery in all the territories gained from Mexico or the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo will be banned. Failed to pass. It passed the House but failed the Senate because the South had greater representation.

    - Importance Angered many; major cause of the Civil War. This plan suggested that slavery should not be allowed to exist in any of the territories that the U.S. could possibly gain from Mexico.  Although this plan passed twice in the House of Representatives in was never fully agreed upon in the Senate, therefore it never became effective.  All free states except one agreed with the conditions of the Wilmot Proviso. Later this "amendment" is seen as being the symbol of the slavery issue in the territories.

    - Additional Information
  • Worcester v. Georgia

    - Definition Established tribal autonomy within Native American boundaries, i.e. the tribes were "distinct political communities, having territorial boundaries within which their authority is exclusive."

    - Importance Important because John Marshall says laws of Georgia can have no force in Indian affairs claiming it a special 'problem', and deemed it unconstitutional. Georgia complies. It's also important because he follows up on his previous opinion from the Cherokee case.

    - Additional Information In 1831 the Cherokees petitioned the supreme court, when Georgia tried to control and "claim" them. The Cherokees just wanted o be left alone as a seperate nation within Georgia, but Georgia wasn't so crazy about the idea. Supreme Court Justice John Marshall ruled they would be a part of the United States.. so when it came time to kick them out, the indians were wicked mad, cause they were supposed to be a part of Georgia... This Worcester vs Georgia case clarified that yes, they were allowed to be there... but Jackson proceded to move them out (by The Trail of Tears) anyway. Poor Cherokees...! 

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